Saturday, August 12, 2017

This Day, August 13, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


August 13

236: The body of Hippolytus, the author of Contra Judaeous, which blamed the harsh conditions of the Jews on their rejection of Jesus was buried in a cemetery on the Via Tiburtina

339: The Roman Emperor “issued a decree forbidding intermarriage between Jews and Christians with transgressors to be punished by death.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

339: The Roman Emperor “issued a decree imposing the death penalty on Jews who circumcise non-Jewish slaves.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

339: The Roman Emperor issued a decree imposing the death penalty on any Jews who hired women weavers that had been “in imperial service.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

985: Birthdate of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim who “ordered…Jews to wear wooden calves around their necks.”

1099: Following a ceremonial that had been instituted by Emperor Otto III, the Jews of Rome “were obliged to attend the entry into” Rome of Paschal II whose papacy began today “singing laudatory hymns.

1311: Birthdate of King Alfonso XI of Castile. During his reign, in 1348, Alfonso issued decrees prohibiting Jews from charging interest when lending money and prohibiting them from collecting unpaid debts.  (The same rules applied to Moslems, but not Christians.) At the same time, Jews were still allowed to own land during his reign.

1315: Louis X of France marries Clemence d'Anjou. In 1315, Louis X also overturned the decree of his predecessor that allowed the Jews to return to France, and accorded them a charter "in answer to the demands of the people."

1391: In Spain, anti-Semitic mobs attacked the Jews of Lerida, reportedly killing 75. Other Jews were forcibly baptized and were forced to see their synagogue turned into a church. 

1453: Seventeen Jews were burned at the stake in Silesia (now Poland and/or Czech Republic).

1516: The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis recognized Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles recognized Francis's claim to Milan. Twice, Charles would issue edicts expelling the Jews from Naples.  The second one, issued in 1533, would take effect despite Jewish attempts to dissuade him. 

1551: Jews of Great Poland were granted limited self-government.

1599: In Basel, “Protestant Christian Hebraist” Johannes Buxtorf and his wife gave birth to their son “Johannes Buxtorf the Younger” who completed and edited several of his father’s works on Hebrew or related to Judaism as well as creating works of his own including a Latin translation of the writings of Maimonides. 

1620(4th of Av): Rabbi Menachem Azariah da Fano (Rama), author of Alfasi Zuta, passed away

1624: In France Cardinal Richelieu was named first chief minister of finance by King Louis XIII.  The Cardinal gave new meaning and depth to the term “power behind the throne.”  Many historians contend that any decree issued by King Louis XIII was really the work of Richelieu. This would include a decree issued in 1632 after the French had taken the fortress city of Metz that allowed the Jews to remain in the city.  The decree was necessitated by the fact that the King had issued a decree in 1615 banning all Jews from living in France.  This decree is an oddity in its in own right since when it was issued Jews were supposedly not living in the Gallic realm to start with.

1713: Birthdate of David Franco Mendes, the native of Amsterdam, a successful businessman who used his leisure time to write poetry, study Talmud and play a prominent role in the Spanish-Portuguese community.

1793: In Stamford Hill, UK, Benjamin Goldsmid and Jessy Salomons gave birth to Albert Goldsmid.

1804: Birthdate of Israel Franklin Moses the native of Charleston, South Carolina who became known as Franklin J. Moses, Sr. – prominent planter, politician and jurist.

1816: Birthdate of German jurist and office holder Rudolf von Geneist who courageously helped to found the Association for the Defense against Anti-Semitism “a non-Jewish organization” also known as The Union for Combating Anti-Semitism.

1817: In Frankfurt am Main Malchen Schloss and David Philipp Schloss gave birth to Jenny Schloss

1823: Birthdate of British born historian Goldwin Smith, “a pathological anti-Semite” who spent his last years in Canada.

1824: Nota ben Solomon married Reizecha bat Moses Israel at the Western Synagoue.

1831: Birthdate of composer and pianist Salomon Jadassohn whose musical accomplishments are overshadowed by the fact that unlike other German Jews he did not convert even though his being Jewish kept him from many “church jobs such as directors or organists” which went to Christians instead.

1837(12 of Av, 5597): Aryeh Löb ben Joseph Katzenellenbogen: who followed in the footsteps of his grandfather and father by serving as a rabbi at Brest-Litovsk a city that would become infamous in the 20th century as the site of the humiliating peace treaty that the Germans forced on the Russians during WW I passed away today.

1846: Birthdate of Sir Otto Jaffe, the Hamburg native who became a successful British businessman and Lord May of Belfast.

1847(30th of Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1851: In England, Cigar Maker Samuel (Isaac) Henry Gluckstein and Hannah Coenraad Gluckstein who had gotten married at the Great Synagogue on Saint James’ Place in 1845 gave birth to their fifth child Isidore Gluckstein.

1851: Birthdate of Felix Adler. Born in Germany, Adler’s family moved to the United States when he was five.  His father, Rabbi Samuel Adler, was head of Temple Emanu-el, the leading Reform Congregation in New York City.  In 1873, Adler became professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature at Cornell University.  In that same year he delivered a major address at his father’s congregation entitled “the Judaism of the Future.”  He proposed ridding Judaism of its superstitious traditions in order to better focus on the ethics that he felt were central to any human community.  The congregation was receptive to his emphasis on ethics but was loathe to cast aside 3000 years of religious tradition.  Adler soon found himself beyond the pale.  In 1876, he founded the New York Ethical Cultural Society.  He remained a champion of the Ethical Cultural Movement until his death in 1933.

1860: In response to a public call, signed by a number of influential citizens, a meeting was held at the Tract-Society House today afternoon, to consider the subject of the Christian massacre in Syria, and to adopt measures for rendering assistance to the sufferers. About twenty persons were present, among them some of our most prominent clergymen.  During the meeting it was noted that meetings for the same purpose were being held in England and France by Jews as well as Christians.

1861: Philadelphian Joseph Lewenberg began serving with Company I of the 23rd Regiment.

1861: Birthdate of Dr. Marcus Jastrow, Jr., the Warsaw native who moved to Philadelphia with his father, the famed Talmudist Marcus Jastrow and became a noted Orientalist.
http://forward.com/articles/138271/

1865(21st of Av, 5625): Fifty year old Bavarian native Henry Bendel, the son of Abraham and Pessle Bendle who married Mary Anker Bendel with whom he had 8 children passed away today in Albany, NY.

1866(2nd of Elul, 5626): Forty year old Lithuanian born Hebrew scholar Wolf Adelsohn whose students included grammarian Ḥayyim Ẓebi Lerner passed away today in Odessa.

1862: The Keystone Battery, a Pennsylvania Light Artillery Regiment in which Leon da Silva Solis-Cohen served until just before the Battle of Gettysburg was organized today in Philadelphia.

1867: Birthdate of Arthur Eichengrün, the German-Jewish chemist who holds 47 patents but is best known for his claim to really have been the inventor of Aspirin.

1867: Birthdate of Dr. Lee K. Frankel, the Philadelphia native who gained fame for his work with various Jewish philanthropies.

1867: Birthdate of Dr. Charles Foster Kent, the American Biblical scholar who dozens of works on ancient Israel including Outlines Of Hebrew History, A History of the Hebrew People (2 volumes) and A History of the Jewish People during the Babylonian, Persian and Greek Periods.

1871: The Grand Lodge of the Ancient Jewish Order of Kesher Shel Barzel  held their annual banquet this evening at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 14th Street in New York City. The lodge has 4,000 members. The dinner was attended by 110 members including thirty delegates from  various parts of the United States.

1871: In Chicago, Rabbi Elkan Herzman was physically forced to leave his synagogue on Fifth Avenue. Some of the congregants had complained because Herzman had violated Jewish law by eating ice cream on a day when he should have been fasting.  When Herzman arrived at the synagogue he found another rabbi in his usual place.  Following the altercation, Herzman complained to the police who said that there was nothing they could do about.  Herzman has threatened further political action.  (I have not been able to find any further reference to this Rabbi or a synagogue on fifth avenue, so if you have, please let me know.)

1872: Birthdate of German born chemist, Richard Willstätter.  Willstatter won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1915 for his study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments.  He resigned his position on the faculty at a university in Munich over the issue of anti-Semitism. After Hitler’s rise to power, he fled to Switzerland where he died in 1942. 

1872: Birthdate of Jacob de Haas, an English journalist who was one of Herzl’s earliest supporters. After Herzl’s death, de Haas became a lead of the Zionist movement in Israel.

1874(30th of Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1874: It was reported today that George Walling, the Superintendent of the New York Police Department had written to Henry Honscheidt, the Sheriff of McLean County, Illinois, telling him that in his opinion the man who had confessed to the Sheriff that he had killed Benjamin Nathan was “either  insane or an imposter.”

1875: Birthdate of Arthur Yitzhak Biram, Israeli philosopher, philologist, and educator, who died on the first day of the Six Days War.

1877: Midhat Pasha, the head of the “Young Turkey” Party is in Vienna where he hopes to negotiate a treaty with Austria and England that will protect the Ottoman Empire and avoid a Holy War. Pasha is the son of a Bulgarian Jew who converted to Islam to enhance his commercial opportunities in the lands of the Sultan.

1876: The Anglo-Jewish Association’s description of a Jewish community living in India was published today. According to the reported the community is known as the Beni-Israel (Children of Israel) and has been in existence for a thousand years.  They dress like Hindus and speak the Hindu language.   While they know little Hebrew, they follow the Levitical Code and strictly observe the Sabbath. They are separate from other Jewish communities in the subcontinent.

1878: Birthdate of Arthur Yitzhak Biram, the native of Saxony who earned a Ph.D. at the University of Leipzig and completed training as a rabbi before emigrating to Ottoman Palestine in 1913 where his academic accomplishments to him being awarded the Israel Prize for education in 1954.

1881: It was reported today that the government is taking “strong measures” to suppress the anti-Semitic riots in Pomerania including the arrest of 21 rioters at Koslin.

1881: “Comical German Names” published today includes a commentary on the names used by German Jews who were “not more than a century ago, forlorn of family names.”  “He was either known by a ‘front name,’ supplemented by that of his father as in ‘Aaron ben David’ or ‘Solomon ben Israel’ or by some nickname owing its origin to the nature of his occupation or perhaps to a conspicuous physical peculiarity.” Apparently this method of nomenclature made it difficult for the taxman to make his collections so a law was passed requiring Jews to choose a surname, use for the entire lifetime and “transmit it by legal act of registration to his children.”

1882: “Mr. Jenkins’s New Book” published today provides a review of A Paladin of Finance by Edward Jenkins in which the Member of Parliament creates a work of fiction based on the financial crash in France in which “he insists., the Jews rule the finances of the world and there wield all the power.”

 1883: The New York Times published a letter to the editor from Raphael Lewin in which the author disputes the account of the Damascus Libel of 1840 published in the Times on August 6 describing it as being slanted and anti-Jewish.

1884: The Board of Governors of the Hebrew Union College re-elected Bernhard Bettmann as President.  Rabbi Henry Berkowitz of Mobile, Alabama and Rabbi Max Landsberg of Rochester, NY, were chosen to serve as new members on the board.

1884: It was reported today that Russian Jew on his way to his brother’s wedding in Paris was detained for 4 days by authorities because he did not understand French and could not answer their questions.  While in custody, a rope was kept around his neck; he was handcuffed and knocked about by those holding him.  When the mayor heard of the incident he called for an investigation

1884: It was reported today that Mrs. Morris Cohn, the daughter of Michael Englemann (the Salt King of Manistee, Michigan) has gone left her husband and returned after his arrest on charges of numerous counts of forgery.  Cohn, a prominent Jewish businessman had spent the $50.000 wedding gift from Englemann and turned to criminal activity to support their lifestyle.

1886: It was reported today that numerous homes of Jews living in Kiev have been destroyed during anti-Jewish riots in the Russian province.

1887: It was reported today that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has new facts that will prove that he did kill Miriam Angel, the woman he was convicted of killing.  Lipski’s lawyer has met privately with Judge Stephen convinced him of his client’s innocence.

1887: Israel Lipski’s solicitor, who has prepared a pamphlet reviewing the case against Israel Lipski containing “sundry points that could not brought into trial” met privately with Judge Stephen, who tried the case and is said “to have been convinced that there was grave doubt of Lipski’s guilt.”

1887: Henry Mathews, the Home Secretary who has refused to interfere in the case of Israel Lipski who has been sentenced to hang for murdering Miriam Angel “took the prompt step of announcing to the press late” tonight “that “Lipski would certainly be hanged” as scheduled.

1889: It was reported today that Theodore Cohn, the young man who stole $610 from A.H. & King is in the Tombs awaiting trial on a charge of grand larceny.

1890: The expenses of today’s excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be paid in full by an anonymous female donor who has been paying for one such excursion for each of the last seven years.

1890: In London, “the meeting at the Mansion House to protest against” Russian persecution has been postponed following reassurance by the Lord Mayor offers reassurances that there is no reason to believe that the Czar’s government will enforce the edicts of 1882.

1890: Godfrey Taubenaus has been selected to serve as Rabbi of Mount Sinai Temple on East 72nd Street.

1891: The Russian government prohibited the collection of funds or the publication of appeals for financial assistance to Jewish immigrants today

1892: “A Chicken Too Much for the Police” published today described the uproar at police stations throughout New York caused by Davis Rubenstein bringing a decayed chicken  to each police station in his attempt to have action taken against Berman’s Butcher Shop which is “selling impure food.” The foul fowl was turned over the Sanitary Bureau to use in its investigation.

1893(1st of Elul, 5653): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1893: “Parties in Austria” published today described the political divisions in the polyglot central European kingdom that include “anti-Semites, who conscientiously hold that hell is not hot enough for the Jews, whose torments ought, in strict justice, to begin in this life and be continued in the next.”

1893: Birthdate of Monnet Bain Davis who served as U.S. Ambassador to Israel from 1951 through 1953>

1895: According to Charles Bernstein, the settlement committee of the striking tailors, most of whom were Jewish, will meet for the last time tonight.

1895: American opera singer Francesca Halle and Joseph Gluckstein who with his brothers Isidore and Montague founded J. Lyons and Co. gave birth to Hannah Gluckstein the British painter known simply as Gluck who also the brother of Sir. Louis Gluckstein.

1896: Herzl meets with the Turkish ambassador, Mahmud Nedim Bey, in Vienna.

1896:  Since American commanders did not know that an armistice had been signed yesterday they proceeded to capture the Philippine city of Manila, the climactic moment in the Battle of Manila.  Sergeant Maurice Justh of the First California Volunteers, a regiment with 100 Jewish members, was the first soldier “to fall in the attack on Manila.”

1898: “Hebrew Charities Building” published today described “the new Hebrew Charities Building, just now rising above the ground level on the corner of Second Avenue and Twenty-first Street” next to the Post Graduate Hospital.

1898: An entry in a Swiss hotel log showed that Freud stayed at the hostelry possibly with “a woman who was not his wife” and may have been his sister-in-law Minna Bernays.

1899: As tensions rise in France during the re-trial of Captain Dreyfus, Paul Deroulede, the poet who is also a member of the Chamber of Deputies and 23 of his allies were arrested today.  (The Dreyfus affair was symptomatic of deep divisions in French society that pitted Republican secularists against Royalist Roman Catholics.)

1899: Three duels are scheduled to be fought by journalists cover the court martial of Captain Dreyfus and Rennes, France.

1899: In Paris, demonstrations took place this evening outside of the offices of the Anti-Semite League where the President of the League and Max Regis, “the former Jew-baiting Mayor of Algiers” are hiding.

1899: “London Sympathy With Dreyfus” published today described a rally where a resolution was adopted calling for “a meeting of rejoicing” “in the event of the acquittal of Dreyfus.”

1899: “‘King Lear’ In Hebrew” published today described the emotional response to Jacob Adler’s portrayal of King Lear at the People’s Theatre in Brooklyn.  The Shakespearian drama has been updated to fit the taste of its predominately immigrant Jewish population so it is set in modern day Vilna and the women “dress in the latest New York Fashions.”

1899: It was reported today that the recent rapprochement between France and Germany has led to renewed mistrust and mistreatment of Germans in Russia as well the decision of the government to order German and Polish Jews who have been living in St. Petersburg for years to leave the capital by the end of the month.

1900: The Fourth Zionist Congress convened in London with five hundred delegates in attendance. Max Nordeau gave the opening in address which included an account of the appalling conditions faced by the Jews of Romania and a tribute to the Kaiser for his treatment of the Jews of Pomerania and East Prussia.

1900: In London, an open air meeting for the evangelizing of Jews was held near Queen’s Hall where the Zionists were holding their congress.

1903: In Salt Lake City, Utah President Joseph F. Smith of the LDS (Mormon) Church gave the dedicatory address at the cornerstone laying for Congregation Montefiore.

1907: The first American taxicabs appear on the streets of New York City.  At least two Jews played a major role in the introduction of this type of conveyance in the United States. In 1915, John Hertz, a Hungarian born Jew started the Yellow Cab Company in Chicago, Il. In 1922, a Russian born Jew named Morris Markin formed the Checker Cab Company and in 1929 he bought the Yellow Cab Company from Hertz.

1909: Birthdate of attorney Joshua J. Nasaw, the husband of Beatrice “Bea” Kaplan Nasaw and the father of historian and author David Nasaw.

1910: Birthdate of Shlomo-Yisrael Rosenberg; the native of Warsaw who moved to the United States where he became a lawyer and a rabbi before making in Aliyah where as Shlomo-Yisrael Ben-Meir he became an MK who held several ministerial porfolios.

1911: At Basel, Switzerland, the 10th Zionist Congress, adopted a resolution to establish a Zionist immigration office in Berlin

1912: Franz Kafka met Felice Bauer in Berlin.  The relationship between these two had a profound effect on Kafka’s literary output as well as his personal life.  One critic recently wrote that Kafka’s correspondence with Bauer “is the most useful key to Kafka’s thoughts and actions during the decisive years of his emergence as a writer.”

1912: In Vineland, NJ, founding of Ahabat Achim syngagouge

1912:  Birthdate of Italian born biologist Salvador Luria. In 1969 he and Max Delbruck shared the Nobel Prize in medicine for the “Luria-Delbruck experiment” which “demonstrates that in bacteria, beneficial mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection. This reinforces the Darwinian notion of evolution by natural selection acting on random mutations.”

1913: In Bavaria, Moritz and Rachel Hellmann, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Bamberger and Julie Judith Bamberger, gave birth to Julie Hellmann

1913: Birthdate of Melvin Frank, the Chicago native and graduate of the University of Chicago whose screen writing efforts included two classics “Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House” and “White Christmas” that helped to create the “middle class American dream.”

1914: The Great War, which will bring so many changes to Jews throughout the next four years, began to take shape as a great conflict as today, on the same day, “four squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps flew from Dover to France while Austria invaded Serbia as its armies crossed the Drina.

1915: Sixty-year old Eli Pochansky, an Orthodox Jew who attacked his son Samuel for smoking on Shabbat and then struck his wife and daughter who tried to defend them is a free man because when the magistrate hearing the assault complaint learned of Pochansky’s strict view on smoking he “decided not to entertain the charge.

1915: In a move that would presage the greatest naval threat to the Allies, a German submarine sank the H.M.T. Royal Edward in the Ægean Sea.

1916: It was reported today that Abram I. Elkus, the new United States Ambassador to Turkey is scheduled to set sail on August 17 for Copenhagen and then spend two or three days in Berlin before continuing on to Constantinople.

1916: It was reported today that Herman Bernstein, the editor of The American Hebrew, in speaking about the service of Oscar Straus, Henry Morgenthau and Abram Elkus as American diplomats said, “The world is more exacting toward a Jewish statesman” meaning that “in addition to serving his country, he must by the brilliance of his service disarm prejudice and raise the prestige of the Jewish people.”

1916: Birthdate of Connie Polan who became Connie Wald when she married Jerry Wald.

1917: The Turkish military leader Djemal Pasha announces the Turkish government has become convinced that the Jewish colonies inside Palestine must be destroyed, so they won't present a danger to the integrity of Turkey.

1917: It was reported today that to meet the needs of the thousands of Jews “who will be drafted into the” United States Army and Navy, “the need for Jewish Chaplains to tend to their spiritual wants” has become clearly apparent which has led Representative Isaac Siegel of New York has introduced a bill into Congress which provides that “The President may appoint not exceeding twenty Chaplains at large for the United States Army representing religious sects not recognized in the apportionment of Chaplains now recognized by law..”

1918: Based on information first supplied by the Vienna Morgen Zeitung, “the Jews who were supporters of the Austro-German Alliance…must now alter their opinion regarding Austria’s foreign policy since Germany no longer allows Jews to cross her frontier” and enter the country while Russia, as a result of the Revolution has lifted all of her laws aimed at suppressing the Jewish population.

1918: Birthdate of Judith Iris Martin, the Newark native who created the long-lived children’s theater group, the Paper Bag Players which would become a New York City institution (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1918: In a move that will have unforeseen meaning for decades to come the “British Government recognized the Czecho-Slovaks as an Allied nation on the same day when the Czechs declared their independence and declared war on Germany.

1921: “The Hotel of the Dead” a silent film written by Walter Wassermann, starring Rosa Valetti and featuring Hermann Picha was released today in Germany.

1921: In Philadelphia, a $15,000 donation to the Jewish Hospital (now the Einstein Medical Center) established the May Fleisher Rosenburg Memorial Fund.

1922: Birthdate of Ruby Burman, the native of Columbus, Ohio, who as Ruby Cohn became “a theater scholar who espied the genius of Samuel Beckett early on in Paris and became a leading authority on his work as well as his friend…” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

1922: Samuel Untermeyer, President of the Palestine Foundation Fund made public a letter from Dr. Arthur Ruppin describing the future establishment of Jewish suburbs at Jerusalem and other sites in Palestine which show the likelihood of the development of major municipalities throughout the area.

1925: In the “Free City of Danzig” Eliezer and Dina Sterenberg gave birth to Meir Shamgar who served as President of the Israeli Supreme Court from 1983 until 1995.

1926: “The Third Squadron” a silent German movie starring Fritz Spira and Eugen Burg, both of whom died in concentration camps in WW II, was released in Germany today.

1926: Birthdate of Arthur Ortenburg, the native of Newark who teamed with his wife Liz Claiborne and Leonard Boxer to create fashion line Liz Claiborne, Inc (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1928: Birthdate of Yehuda "Nimrod" Lapidot “an Israeli historian and former professor of biochemistry. Lapidot was a member of the Irgun and an officer in the Israel Defense Forces. In 1980 he was appointed head of Lishkat Hakesher by former Irgun commander and then Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Lapidot received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Hebrew University in 1960 and later became a professor.”

1928(27th of Av, 5688): Eighty-two year old American Jewish author Isaac Markens, the son of Orientalist Elias Markens and the collector of Lincoln memorabilia whose works included  Lincoln and the Jews  passed away today in Newark, NJ.

1928(27th of Av, 5688): Seventy-one year old Nathan Lamport, the son of Tsvi Hirsch Lamport and Esther Lamport  and the husband of Sarah Lamport passed away today in Dobbs Ferry, NY after which he was buried in Jerusalem. He was“nationally known Orthodox leader and philanthropist, president of the Board of Directors of the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and donor of $200,000 toward the Yeshiva College now in process of construction.”

1928: At the casino in Deauville, Charles A. Levine punched the editor of The Boulevardier after the latter admitted that he was the one who had been taking “dirty cracks” at Levine.  The two were separated and Miss Mabel Boll, who was reportedly Levine’s mistress, took him away.  Levine, a non-observant Jew, claimed to be the first passenger to fly the Atlantic in 1927.

1929: New York State Supreme Court Justice Frankenthaler is scheduled to hear arguments regarding a petition to have the question of the sanity of Alfred Dreyfus be determined by a jury.

1929: Jewish financier Felix Warburg and Lord Melchett, the famous British nobleman whose picture appeared on the cover of Time Magazine on October 29, 1928, each donate five hundred thousand dollars to start a financial concern aimed at helping development in Palestine.

1933: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency published an article that estimated that there were about 660,000 non-Aryans living in Germany of which 500,000 are "official" Jews and 160,000 of Jewish descent.

1933: “So This Is Harris!” – “a short comedy directed by Mark Sandrich” was released in the United States by RKO.

1934: La signora di tutti (Everybody's Woman) the only Italian film directed by Max Ophüls was released in Italy today.

1934: The comic strip “Li’l Abner,” created by Al Capp, made its debut. Born Alfred Gerald Caplan in New Haven, in 1909, Capp was a successful syndicated cartoonist by the age of 19.  He created Li’l Abner and all of his Hillbilly friends during the depths of the Great Depression.  One of the most famous characters in the strip were the Schmoos.  These characters could jump into your pot or skillet and “cook up” to taste like any food you wished for.  To Jewish kids, the Schmoos sounded an awful like the manna in the Bible.

1936: Felix M. Warburg, New York banker and philanthropist, today was named chairman of the American division of the executive committee of the Council for German Jewry.

1936: It was reported today that two Jewish newspapers in Berlin are not publishing any news about the Olympics because “neither has received a press card or been recognized in any way.”

1936(25th of Av, 5696): Late tonight in Safed, “Arab terrorists” “broke in the house of Rabbi Alter Ungar who was asleep with his family” and threw a bomb that “decapitated the rabbi” and killed an eight year old girl and a six year old boy.

1936: It was reported today that “there are no real Jews on the German Olympic team” since “Helen Mayer is only half Jewish” and that “there is no evidence that Olympics has made any difference (improvement) in the status of German Jews.”

1936: In Geneva, “The World Jewish Congress adopted eight resolutions by acclamation today and tonight cover the Palestine problem, the German boycott, emigration, anti-Semitism, the German Jewish question, refugees, relief and Soviet Russia.”

1936: Roger W. Straus, the co-chairman of the National Conference of Christians and Jews was appointed as “special assistant” in the Landon Presidential Campaign and “hit at reports that the Republican National Chairman had anti-Semitic tendencies.”

1937(6th of Elul, 5697): “Four members of a Jewish family,” including three children were “shot dead by Arabs who broke into their home in Safed.

1937: A proposal to settle 200,000 Jews in Palestine within the next three years, involving an investment of about $175,000,000, was laid before the World Zionist Congress today. The proposal was made by Elieser Kaplal, treasurer of the Zionist executive committee, who said American Jewry was expected to contribute $2,000,000 to the Zionist movement and Palestine fund in the current fiscal year.

1938: “Fifty-five Austrian Jews,” including ten women and three children “who have been deprived of their livelihoods and homes” following the Anschluss arrived in Helsingfors, Finland, aboard a Finnish liner but were forbidden to come ashore because of irregularities in their passports” even though the local Jewish community promised to provide food and shelter for the refugees and the Cabinet granted temporary permission for their landing.

1938(16th of Av, 5698): As they bicycled from Ramatayim to Petah Tikva Benjamin Babayoff and his wife were shot and killed by gunmen firing from an orange grove and their seven year old daughter who was riding on the handlebars was severely wounded.

1939: Newlyweds Katherine and Walter E. Sachs were sailing across the ocean to Europe today.

1939:  In Brooklyn Julius and Anee Cohen Steinberg gave birth to Saul Phillip Steinberg the Wharton graduate who founded “Leasco” which provided him with the financial bases to acquire 150 year old Reliance Insurance Company.

1940(9th of Av, 5700): Tish'a B'Av

1940: During World War II, the Battle of Britain the Luftwaffe attacked British airfields   Field Marshall Goering told Hitler that the Luftwaffe could bomb the British into submission making an invasion unnecessary. On the other hand, by destroying the RAF, the Germans would be able to invade the British Isles with complete control of the skies insuring a Nazi victory.  If the British had lost the Battle of Britain, the Final Solution would have been that much closer to being truly “final.”  For more about the role of Jews in actually fighting the Battle of Britain see http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/ww2/sugar4.html.   Failure to win the Battle of Britain soured Hitler on the capabilities of the Luftwaffe and caused him to turn his face eastward towards the Soviet Union.  The invasion of the Soviet Union would result in the millions of Jews coming under the sway of the Final Solution.

1942(30th of Av, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1942: The Jewish communities at Mir, Belorussia, and Gorodok, Ukraine, are liquidated.

1942: Switzerland forces Jews (mostly French) already safe in Switzerland back across the border. The Swiss government will turn back 10,000 Jews to their deaths during the remainder of the war on the grounds that only political refugees can be admitted into Switzerland, not "racial refugees." The Swiss government does, however, welcome the gold that the Germans extract from the mouths and fingers of the dead Jews.  

1942: For the next fourteen days, 53,750 Jews from Warsaw will be deported to the Treblinka death camp.

1942: United States State Department officials and the British Foreign Office decide that the Riegner Cable outlining details of the Holocaust be kept secret.

1943: “A group of 367 Jews with Spanish citizenship arrived at Bergen Belsen, and in violation of his instructions Spanish diplomat Sebastian de Romero Radigales kept them alive until the Spanish government “changed its position and permitted their transfer to Spanish Morocco.”

1943: Y. Ben Ami wrote a letter to Peter H. Bergson proposing “the creation of a ‘Free Palestine League’ to influence United States policy on the Middle East and to wage a publicity campaign to create public support for an independent Palestine.” (Ben Ami would have a son, Jeremy who became the executive director of “J Street.”)

1944:  The Monuments Men under the command of James Rorimer “met as a group for the first time today outside the ruins of Saint Lo.”

1944: Following today’s arrest of an SOE agent and a French officer by the Gestapo, Krystyna Skarbek with the SS officer in charge, and using a combination of threats and bribery obtained the release of her comrades.

1945: Thirty-five Jews sacrifice their lives to blow up Nazi rubber plant in Silesia

1946: British authorities open detention camps on the island of Cyprus to hold Jewish refugees who have been prevented from entering Palestine due to British restrictions on immigration.

1946: In Brooklyn Anna Blumenthal and Dr. Julius Yellen gave birth to Janet Louise Yellen the American economist who has a career as an academic and public service including chairing the Council of Economic Advisers and holding senior positions with the Federal Reserve.

1948: Harry Dexter White, the son of Jewish immigrants from Lithuania, who had been accused of being a communist and a traitor denied being a member of the party when testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee today.

1948(8th of Av, 5708): Silent screen star Elaine Hammerstein, daughter of Arthur Hammerstein and granddaughter of Oscar Hammerstein, died in an automobile accident.

1951: “A Nahal group from the Ezra movement” Sha’alvim, “a religious Kibbutz in central Israel…affiliated with Agudat Israel.

1951: Gonen a Nahal settlement  which was “civilianized in 1952 by a group of Hebrew Scouts” was established today in the Upper Galilee “

1952: In New York Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt welcomed the 50,000th visitor to the Bond Drive’s Israeli Industrial Exhibition. The Hebrew lettering on a gleaming, Kaiser-Frazer car, assembled in Israel, made a great impression.

1953(2nd of Elul, 5713): Seventy-three year old history Eugen Täubler who began his career teaching  ath the Higher Institute for Jewish in Berlin and finished it teaching at HUC in Cincinnati, Ohio, passed away today.

1955: Two years after the death of Joseph Stalin, old-line Bolshevik Semyon Dimanstein was rehabilitated by the Communists running the Soviet Union.  Born in 1886, Dimanstein reportedly became a Rabbi after studying at a Chabad Yeshiva before becoming a Russian revolutionary.  He was widely identified with Jewish issues inside the Soviet Union including the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Far East and Yidn in FSSR (Jews in the Soviet Union). He was a victim of Stalin’s murderous purges in 1938. Rehabilitation is sort of like the Communist version of Resurrection.

1957: In Philadelphia, PA, “veteran WCAU Philadelphia news anchor Gene Crane and his first wife Joan”
 gave birth to David Crane,  who helped to create one television’s most popular sitcoms – “Friends” which will live on forever in re-runs.

1958: “God’s Little Acre” the film version of a novel by the same name directed by Anthony Mann with a script by Philip Yordan and Ben Maddow, starring Vic Morrow and with music by Elmer Bernstein was released today in the United States.

1959(9th of Av, 5719):Tish'a B'Av

1961(1st of Elul, 5721): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1961: Ernst and Karola Bloch were on a lecture tour in the Federal Republic of German when the Berlin Wall “went up” today forcing them to forsake their home Leipzig (East Germany) and settle in Tubingen (West Germany)

1961(1st of Elul, 5721): Seventy-nine year old Sir Ellice Victor Sassoon, who became a Baron on the death of his father Edward Elias Sassoon and who made much of his fortune in the orient passed away today. 

1965: It was reported today that the auditorium of newly built Anna Lazaroff Synagogue in Kfar Chabad
“was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Ferkauf, of New York, honoring Mr. and Mrs. Isidore and Rose Silverman.” (JTA)

1970: Two months after being released in the United States, “Two Mules for Sister Sara” directed by Dan Siegel and with a screenplay by Albert Maltz was released in Mexico today.

1973(15th of Av, 5733): Maurice Bisgyer, retired executive vice president of B'nai B'rith, the Jewish service organization, died today at the age of 75.

1973: The body of Sir Moses Montefiore, father of modern Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel, will be returned to Jerusalem a century after his death, the Israeli Government said today. The body will be moved from Ramsgate to Israel in 1975.

1976(15th of Av, 5755): Tu B’Av

1976: It was announced today that “the working title” of the film to be made about the raid on Entebbe “is ‘Operation Jonathan,’ in honor of Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Netanyahu, a 30 year old American born Israeli officer who killed during the rescue operation.”

1976: Having returned to NYC from a campaign trip to Rochester, Daniel P. Moniyhan who is running for a seat in the U.S. Senate was reported today to have “said that the Entebbe raid followed by” the terrorist attack at Istanbul “were indications of the failure of the international community to cooperate to cope with terror.”

1976: The Palestinian terrorists “who killed four persons in an attempt to hijack an Israeli plane at Istanbul were reported today to have “said they had been instructed to kill as many Israelis as we can” and that they were “active warriors of the PLO” which “they had joined six months ago.”

1976: Abraham Hirschfeld, a candidate for the U.S. Senate from New York was reported today to have named “a coordinator for his effort to win support in Hispanic areas of the state.”

1977: President Carter’s administration rejected the Israeli request for the co-production rights of the F-16 fighter-bomber and announced that Israel would not be able to purchase the 250 planes as requested. This number had been reduced to 50 or 75 on grounds that the Israel Air Force no longer needed to maintain its air superiority over the Arabs.

1978(1st of Av, 5738): Rosh Chodesh Av

1982: “White Dog” a cinematic treatment of Romain Gary’s novel of the same name “directed by Samuel Fuller” who co-authored the script was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures today.

1987: “Lyricist Lorenz Hart Lives On Through Sisterly Devotion” published today described the efforts of Dorothy Hart, the sister-in-law of the composer to preserve his legacy as can be seen by her new book The Complete Lyrics of Lorenz Hart.

1982: “Fast Times at Ridgemont High” directed by Amy Heckerling was released in the United States by Amy Heckerling.

1987: “Didn’t We Almost Have It All” a Grammy nominated song written by Michael Masser was released today.

1991: The publisher Robert Maxwell said today that he had reached a private agreement with the publisher and other shareholders of Israel's Ma'ariv-Modin Group to acquire the majority of shares in the company, which owns the Israeli daily Ma'ariv. Ma'ariv is published in Hebrew in Tel Aviv. Financial details were not given. A statement said Mr. Maxwell would be the chairman and publisher and hold more than 70 percent of the shares. Dov Judkowski, who with Mr. Maxwell controls more than 75 percent of the shares, will be editor in chief and deputy chairman. "I shall put at the disposal of Ma'ariv-Modin all the funds necessary for the swift development of the paper, for the benefit of both the group and its staff," said Mr. Maxwell, who recently acquired The Daily News in New York.

1993: “A Bronx Tale,” a crime film produced by Jane Rosenthal premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival.

1995: Aharon Barak succeeded Meir Shamgar as President of the Supreme Court of Israel.

1999(1st of Elul, 5759): Rosh Chodesh Elul observed for the last time in the 20th century

2000: The New York Times book section featured a review of Half-Jew: A Daughter's Search for Her Family's Buried Past by Susan Jacoby and Rodinsky’s Room a mystery about David Rodinsky coauthored by Iain Sinclair and Rachel Lichtenstein, granddaughter of Polish Jewish refugee Gedaliah Lichtenstein.

2001: In the fight against West Nile Virus, pesticides are applied at Baron Hirsch Cemetery In New York

2003: “The 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously rules to refuse to reconsider a three-judge panel ruling that a Ten Commandments plaque from 1920 can remain on the Chester County courthouse in Pennsylvania. The appeals court was overruling a decision that the plaque with the commandments “violated the separate of church and state.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

2005: The 20th annual Conference on Alternatives in Jewish Education (CAJE) opens at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst.

2005(8th of Av, 5765): Parashat Devarim; Shabbat Chazon; Erev Tish’a B’Av

2005(8th of Av, 5765): Ninety-two year old movie producer Armand Deutsch passed away today.

2006: A Woman in Jerusalem by A. B. Yehoshua (translated from the Hebrew by Hillel Halkin) was reviewed in the Book Section of the New York Times. A human resources manager is described as “the nameless main character” of this latest acclaimed novel.  Finally a novel features a Jewish human resources manager – how can one not be excited at the prospect of reading this? 

2006: The Book Section of the Washington Post featured a review of  Peter Hartcher’s Bubble Man: Alan Greenspan and the Missing 7 Trillion Dollars which the reviewer describes as a “flawed jeremiad” that attempts to blame Greenspan for the collapse of the dot com bubble and the losses that may or may not have taken place.

2006(19th of Av, 5766): Mahadi Hiyat, 83, was killed when a rocket crashed directly into his house near the town of Shlomi. Hiyat was the sole Egyptian resident of the northern Jewish community of Ya'arah.

2007: A copy of Faye Kellerman’s latest novel, The Burnt House is contributed to the Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, thus insuring that its library will have a complete collection of her detective mysteries. With The Burnt House, Kellerman returns to her literary roots with Rina and Peter Decker, the Jewish couple that solves murders.  Besides the fact they are slick yarns, where else can you be on the trail of multiple murderers while one of the characters talks about “hashgacha pratite” and another reassures his spouse that they could enjoy a visit to Santa Fe since “they have a Chabad there.”

2007: Some 75 people from the Jewish community of Rochester, New York, attended a dedication ceremony today to honor a rediscovered burial plot, long unknown to the community, where over 100 Jews from the 19th century were buried.

2008: Forty Reform Jews land in Israel for a first-of-its-kind trip to meet the Israeli Reform movement.

2008: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez met with Jewish leaders today, pledging to work together against anti-Semitism and open up channels of communication despite differences on Middle East politics. Both Chavez and leaders of the World Jewish Congress called the meeting a success.

2009: Funeral for Robert William Levine, the businessman and philanthropist who worked to aid Russian immigrants is scheduled to take place at Temple Emanuel in Newton, MA followed by burial at Memorial Park in Sharon, MA.

2009: In Jerusalem, the Yiddishpiel Theatre helps prepare people for the High Holidays by presenting a “unique musical event which combines stories about the great cantors and Jewish and cantorial soul songs.

2009: In Jerusalem, Beit Avi Chai, A cultural center that explores concepts of Jewish and Israeli identity and creativity presents a workshop led by Dr. Meir Buzaglo, Department of Philosophy, at Hebrew University entitled Rambam in the 21st Century that asks the questions, “How does the Rambam’s thinking relate to the basic questions of the modern age?”

2009: The Israel Defense Forces said today that they were investigating reports of a kidnapped soldier.

2009: The Jewish Lads’ and Girls’ Brigade (JLGB), “the UK’s oldest Jewish youth which was founded as the Jewish Lads’ Brigade by Colonel Albert E.W. Goldsmid” “broke the Guinness World Record for the largest custard pie fight at their annual summer camp with 253 people taking part and throwing 648 pies in a matter of minutes.”

2009: Rai Ephraim Simon, co-director of Friends of Lubavitch and a father of nine donated one of his kidneys to Samar Chasid living in Williamsburg who is the father of ten.

2009 Today, 36 year old Tzipora “Obziler convened a press conference to announce her retirement from professional tennis.”

2009 Patriot’s rookie Julian Edelman scored his first professional points on today in a pre-season game with the Philadelphia Eagles returning a punt 75 yards for a touchdown

2010(3rd of Elul, 5770):  On the Hebrew calendar today marks the 75th anniversary of the passing of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook. He passed away on the 3rd of Elul, 5695. During the British Mandate, “Rabbi Kook was the first Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of the Jewish population in the Land of Israel in modern times, and had great love and respect for the secular Zionist movement…”

2010: Temple Judah is scheduled to celebrate the 88th birthday of Marianne Bern at the Oneg following Friday night services.

2010: The man who killed Meir Kahane in 1990 claims he did not carry out the shooting alone, as previously thought, but was part of a three-man terrorist cell with links to al-Qaida. Its original target was future prime minister Ariel Sharon, according to a newly-leaked US government document. .

2010: The reopening of Shaarei Torah, the synagogue of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, luminary sage and father of modern religious Zionism, coincided with the 75th anniversary of Rabbi Kook's death.

2011: The Gaga Summer Intensive that included Ohad Naharin's Repertoire is scheduled to come to a close today. Ohad Naharin “is an Israeli contemporary dancer, choreographer, artistic director, and musician.”

2011(13th of Av, 5771): Shabbat Nachamu

2011: The Summer Israeli Folk Dance Mostly Couples Marathon is scheduled to take place at Buttenwieser Hall in New York City.

2011: Social protests took place throughout Israel today, with demonstrators turning out en masse in Haifa, Be’er Sheva and Afula. This was the first time since the start of the social protests nearly a month ago that Tel Aviv did not hold a march.

2011: Gunmen abducted an American Jew after breaking into his house in the eastern Pakistani city of Lahore today in an unusually brazen raid that illustrated the threat to foreigners in this militancy-wracked, US-allied country. The US Embassy identified the victim as Warren Weinstein. A man by that name serves as the Pakistan country director for J.E. Austin Associates, a development contractor that works with the aid arm of the American government, according to a profile on the LinkedIn networking website.

2012: Five short films created by Israeli directors - Occupy Rothschild, Wall to Wall, Busted, Word Games, A Wonderful Day – are scheduled to be shown in NYC

2012: The Industry, Trade and Labor Ministry announced today that the price of a price-controlled loaf of bread will rise by 6.53 percent tomorrow.

2012: Hezbollah has rockets that can hit any Israeli city, a leading official of the organization said this afternoon. In the morning Walla News reported a battery of the mobile Iron Dome anti-missile defense system was installed near Safed last week as part of an ongoing series of tests.

2012: Israel may need to destroy parts of Lebanon and Gaza if Hezbollah and Hamas rain missiles upon the country in response to an Israeli attack on Iran, former Mossad head Danny Yatom said today

2012(25th of Av, 5772): Eighty three year old real estate mogul and philanthropist Zev Wolfson passed away today.

2013: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown at the Morris Cafritz Center for the Arts as part of the Year-Round Washington Jewish Film Festival.

2013: “Little Me” a Neil Simon musical opened at the Rose and Crown Theatre in London.

2013: “The High Court of Justice today rejected a petition by the families of terror victims to block the release of 26 Palestinian prisoners who were convicted of terrorism, ruling that it is not for the court to involve itself in what is a diplomatic rather than a legal process.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

2013: The Israel Defense Forces gained 125 new recruits today as over 300 immigrants from North America landed in Israel, part of a charter flight organized by the Nefesh B’Nefesh organization. (As reported by Joshua Davidovich)

2013: Amir Levy is scheduled to appear in “Bellimi and the Sultan” at the Robert Moss Theatre

2014: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to unveil two plaques honoring rescuers from Italy and Poland at the Ferro Fountain of the Righteous

2014: Dr. Mark W. Weisstuch is scheduled to deliver the second in his series of lectures on “The Merchant of Venice: A study of despair and humanity” at the Skirball Center for Jewish Life and Learning.

2014: “Jewish people must be allowed to pray on the Temple Mount during the High Holidays and Sukkot, lawmakers in the Knesset Interior Committee said today.” (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

2014: “Rockets were fired from Gaza tonight two-hours before the midnight deadline to Sunday's 72-hour cease-fire, as the IDF enhanced its troop presence along the border preparing to once again wage war against Hamas in Gaza.” (As reported by Herb Keinon, Hhaled Abu Toameh and Michael Wilner)

2014: “Accompanied by Senate Majority co-leaders Dean Skelon and Jeff Klein together with Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, Andrew M. Cuomo, the Governor of New York, called on President Reuven Rivlin today to affirm the State of New York’s support for the State of Israel in light of the continued threat of attacks by Hamas and other terrorist organizations.” (As reported by Greer Fay Cashman)

2015: ““Asif Kapadia’s Amy Winehouse film is” is scheduled to be shown in London under the auspices of the UK Jewish Film which “aims to develop a culture where Jewish and Israeli film is recognized and enjoyed by the widest possible audience, and to bring Jewish related film to the heart of British culture.”

2015: Jews On Bikes is scheduled to cosponsor “What It Takes: Havdalah” where attendees will “gain the skills to make Havdalah on their own” at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue.

2015: It was reported today, that the appoint of Fiamma Nirenstein, a former Italian MP and journalist who immigrated to Israel in 2013 to serve “as Israel’s ambassador to Rome has rattled the Italian Jewish community amid fear of accusations of dual loyalty.”

2016: In “Obit for the Obits” Bruce Weber bid farewell to his role an obituary writer for the New York Times. (Editor’s Note – This a moment of mixed emotion.  On the one hand we are glad that Mr. Weber will get to enjoy the fruits of a long life.  On other hand, he will be sorely missed.  His obits have provided mountains of information.  And his writing his elegant and amazing.  He is able to capture the life of people, some of whom are obscure and/or long forgotten, in a handful of well-chosen words.  I can think of no greater way to end one’s life than to be a subject of Bruce Weber’s writing.)

2016: At its triennial assembly which ended today, ‘The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America approved a resolution calling on the U.S. government to end all aid to Israel if Israel does not stop building settlements and “enable an independent Palestinian state.” (Editor’s Note – considering Luther’s view on Jews, he would be so proud of his spiritual descendants.)

2016: “Israeli superstar David Broza” and the Jazz Encounters are scheduled to perform at National Sawdust.

2016(9th of Av, 5776): Parashat Devarim; Shabbat Chazon; Erev Tish'a B'Av; for more see

2016: The “22nd annual March around the Old City Witt the Women in Green” is scheduled to begin at 9:30 pm with the reading of “Eicah” in Independence Park.

2016: At midnight, “floodwaters began to flow into Ellen Sager’s Baton Rouge” – one of the 34 homes owned by Jewish resident of the city that would be lost to the rising waters.

2016: The Jerusalem Soul Center is scheduled to host the annual reading of Eicha starting at 8:45 pm which this year will be “dedicated to the Memory of Mike Levin z'l, our holy brother and lone soldier friend killed 10 years ago in the Lebanon War and buried on Tisha Bav 2006.”

2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bed-Suy Is Burning, a novel by Brian Platzer and the recently released paperback edition of You’ll Grow Out Of It by Jessi Klein as well as recommendation for the sleep deprived to read Go The F**K To Sleep by Adam Mansbach.

2017: The Gula Bar and Restaurant at 4 David Remez Street in Jerusalem is schedule to host an Ilan Jazz Trio Concert featuring singer and pianist Ilan Chouraki.

2017: Dov Boros, the native of Budapest who survived the Gestapo and the Arrow Cross, who survived the Budapest ghetto is scheduled to talk about his experiences at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.

2017: Rita is scheduled to host Shimon Buskila at the Jerusalem Arts and Crafts Fair.

 

 

 

 

 

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